Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Guide | IT Knowledge Portal
   
 

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Guide

Introduction

A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) is a recognized standard for the project management profession. A standard is formal document that describes established norms, methods, processes, and practices. As with other professions such as law, medicine, and accounting, the knowledge contained in this standard evolved from the recognized good practices of project management practitioners who contributed to the development of this standard.

 

The first two chapters of the PMBOK Guide provide an introduction to key concepts in the project management field. Chapter 3 is the standard for project management .As such, it summarizes the processes, inputs, and outputs that are considered good practices on most projects most of time. Chapters 4 through 12 are the guide to the project management body of knowledge. They expand on the information in the standard by describing the inputs and outputs as well as tools and techniques used in managing projects.

 

The PMBOK Guide provides guidelines for managing individual projects. It defines project management and related concepts and describes the project management life cycle and related processes.

 

Purpose 

The increasing acceptance of project management indicates that the application of appropriate knowledge, processes, skills, tools, and techniques can have a significant impact on project success. The PMBOK® Guide identifies that subset of the Project Management Body of Knowledge that is generally recognized as good practice.

 

“Generally recognized” means that the knowledge and practices described are applicable to most projects most of the time, and that there is widespread consensus about their value and usefulness.

 

“Good practice” means that there is general agreement that the correct application of these skills, tools, and techniques can enhance the chances of success over a wide range of different projects.

 

Good practice does not mean that the knowledge described should always be applied uniformly on all projects; the organization and/or project management team is responsible for determining what is appropriate for any given project.

 

What is a project? 

    A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.

     

    The temporary nuture of projects indicates a definite beginning and end. The end is reached when the project’s objectives have been achieved, or when the project is terminated because its objectives will not or cannot be met, or when the need for the project no longer exists. Temporary does not necessarily mean short in duration. Temporary does not generally apply to the product, sercive, or result created by the project; mօst projects are undertaken to create a lasing oucome.  For example, a projects ti build a national monument will create a result expected to last centuries. Projects can also have social, economic and environmental impacts that far outlast the projects themselves.

     

    Every project creates a unique product, service, or result. Although repetitive elements may be present in some project deliverables, this repetition does not change the fundamental uniqueness of the project work. For example, office buildings are constracted with the same or similar materials or by the same team, but each location is unique – with a different design, different circumstances, different contractors, and so on.

     

    An ongoing work effort is generally a repetitive process because it followes an organization’s existing procedures. In contrast, because of the unique nature of projects, there may be uncertainties about the products, services, or results that the project creates. Project tasks can be new to a project team, which necessitates more dedicated planning than other routine work. In addition, projects are undertaken at all organizational levels. A project can involve a single persone, a single organizational unit, or multipale organizational units.

     

    A project can create:

    • A product that can be either a component of another item or an end item in itself
    • A capability to perform a service (e.g., a business function that supports production or distribution), or
    • A result such as an outcome or document (e.g., a research project that develops knowledge that can be used to determine whether a trend is present or a new process will benefit society).

    Examples of projects include, but not limited to:

    • Developing a new product or services
    • Effecting a change in the structure, staffing, or style of an organization
    • Developing or acquiring a new or modified information system
    • Constructing a building or infrastructure, or
    • Implementing a new business process or procedure.

    What is a project management ?

      Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.

       

      Project management is accomplished through the application and integration of the 42 logically grouped project management processes comprising the 5 Process Groups. These 5 Process Groups are

      • Initiating
      • Planning
      • Executing
      • Monitoring and Controlling, and
      • Closing.

      Managing a project typically includes:

      • Identifying requirements
      • Addressing the various needs, concerns and expectations of the stakeholders  as the project is planned and carried out
      • Balancing the competing projects constraints including, but not limited to:
      •     
        • Scope
        • Quality
        • Schedule
        • Budget
        • Resources and
        • Risk

      The specific project will influence the constraints on which the project manager needs to focuse.

       

      The relationship among these factors is such that if any one of factor changes, at least one other factor is likely to be affected. For example, if the schedule is shortened, often the budget needs to be increased to add additional resources to complete the same amount of work in less time. If a budget increase is not possible, the scope or quality may be reduced to deliver a product in less time for the same budget. Project stakeholders may have differing ideas as to which factors are the most important, creating an even greater challenge. Changing the project requirements may create additional risks. The project team must be able to assess the situation and balance the demands in order to deliver a successful project.

       

      Because of the potential for change, the project management plan is iterative and goes through progressive elaboration throughout the project’s life cycle. Progressive elaboration involves continuously improving and detailing a plan as more-detailed and specific information and more accurate estimates become available.

      Progressive elaboration allows a project management team to manage to a greater level of detail as the project evolves.

       

      The PMBOK Guide Structure 

        The PMBOK® Guide – Fourth Edition maintains the organization from the third edition and is organized into three sections.

         

        Section I, The Project Management Framework , provides a basis for understanding project management .

        There are two chapters in this section:

         

        Chapter 1, Introduction, presents a basis and purpose for the standard. It defines what a project is and discusses project management and the relationship between project, program, and portfolio management .The role of the project manager is also discussed .

         

        Chapter 2, Project Life Cycle and Organization, provides an overview of the project life cycle and its relationship to the product life cycle. It describes the project phases and their relationship to each other and to the project, and includes an overview of organizational structure that can influence the project and the way the project is managed.

         

        Section II, The Standard for Project Management , defines the project management processes and defines the inputs and outputs for each process.

         

        Chapter 3, Project Management Processes for a Project defines the five Process Groups: Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, and Closing. This chapter maps Project Management Knowledge Areas to specific Project Management Process Groups.

         

        Section III, The Project Management Knowledge Areas, describes the Project Management Knowledge Areas, lists the project management processes; and defines the inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs for each area. Each of the nine chapters focuses on a specific Knowledge Area.

         

        Chapter 4, Project Integration Management , defines the processes and activities that integrate the various elements of project management .This chapter includes:

        • Develop Project Charter
        • Develop Project Management Plan
        • Direct and Manage Project Execution
        • Monitor and Control Project Work
        • Perform Integrated Change Control
        • Close Project or Phase.

        Chapter 5, Project Scope Management , shows the processes involved in ensuring the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. This chapter includes:

        • Collect Requirements
        • Define Scope
        • Create WBS
        • Verify Scope
        • Control Scope.

        Chapter 6, Project Time Management , focuses on the processes that are used to help enshure the timely completion of the project. This chapter includes:

        • Define Activities
        • Sequence Activities
        • Estimate Activity Resources
        • Estimate Activity Durations
        • Develop Schedule
        • Control Schedule.

        Chapter 7, Project Cost Management , describes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget. This chapter includes:

         

        • Estimate Costs
        • Determine Budget
        • Control Cost.

        Chapter 8, Project Quality Management , describes the processes involved in planning for, monitoring, controlling, and assuring the quality requirements of the project are achieved. This chapter includes:

        • Plan Quality
        • Perform Quality Assurance
        • Perform Quality Control.

        Chapter 9, Project Human Resource Management , describes the processes involved in the planning, acquisition, development, and management of the project team. This chapter includes:

        • Develop Human Resource Plan
        • Acquire Project Team
        • Develop Project Team
        • Manage Project Team.

        Chapter 10, Project Communications Management , identifies the processes involved in ensuring timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, storage and ultimate disposition of project information. This chapter includes:

        • Identify Stakeholders
        • Plan Communications
        • Distribute Information
        • Manage Stakeholders Expectations
        • Report Performance.

        Chapter 11, Project Risk Management , describes the processes involved with identifying, analyzing, and controlling risks for the project. This chapter includes:

        • Plan Risk Management
        • Identify Risks
        • Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
        • Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
        • Plan Risk Responses
        • Monitor and Control Risks.

        Chapter 12, Project Procurement Management , describes the processes involved with purchasing or acquiring products, services or results for the projects. This chapter includes:

        • Plan Procurements
        • Conduct Procurements
        • Administer Procurements
        • Close Procurements.

        Overview of Project Management Knowledge Areas and Project Management Processes

         

        Project Management Process Groups

         

                                                                           Project Management Process

         

        Project Management Process

        Key Inputs

        Key Outputs

        Initiating Process Group

        Develop Project Charter

        1. Project statement of work
        2. Business case
        3. Contract
        4. Enterprise environmental factors
        5. Organizational process assets

         

        1. Project charter

        Identify Stakeholders

         

        1. Project charter
        2. Procurement documents
        3. Enterprise environmental factors
        4. Organizational process assets

         

        1. Stakeholder register
        2. Stakeholder management strategy

        Planning Process Group 

        Develop Project Management Plan

        1. Project charter
        2. Outputs from planning  processes
        3. Enterprise environmental factors
        4. Organizational process assets

         

        1. Project management plan

        Collect Requirements

        1. Project charter
        2. Stakeholder register
        1. Requirements documentation
        2. Requirements management plan
        3. Requirements traceability matrix

         

        Define Scope

        1. Project charter
        2. Requirements documentation
        3. Organizational process assets
        1. Project scope statement
        2. Project document updates

         

        Create WBS

        1. Project scope statement
        2. Requirements documentation
        3. Organizational process assets
        1. WBS (Work breakdown structure)
        2. WBS dictionary
        3. Scope baseline
        4. Project document updates

         

        Define Activities

        1. Scope baseline
        2. Enterprise environmental factors
        3. Organizational process assets
        1. Activity list
        2. Activity attributes
        3. Milestone list

         

        Sequence Activities

        1. Activity list
        2. Activity attributes
        3. Milestone list
        4. Project scope statement
        5. Organizational process assets

         

        1. Project schedule network diagram
        2. Project document updates

        Estimate Activity Resources

        1. Activity list
        2. Activity attributes
        3. Resource calendars
        4. Enterprise environmental factors
        5. Organizational process assets
        1. Activity resource requirements
        2. Resource breakdown structure
        3. Project document updates

         

        Estimate Activity Durations

        1. Activity list
        2. Activity attributes
        3. Activity resource requirements
        4. Resource calendars
        5. Project scope statement
        6. Enterprise environmental factors
        7. Organizational process assets

         

        1. Activity duration estimates
        2. Project document updates

        Develop Schedule

        1. Activity list
        2. Activity attributes
        3. Project schedule network diagrams
        4. Activity resource requirements
        5. Resource calendars
        6. Activity duration estimates
        7. Project scope statement
        8. Enterprise environmental factors
        9. Organizational process assets

         

        1. Project schedule
        2. Schedule baseline
        3. Schedule data
        4. Project document updates

        Estimate Costs

        1. Scope baseline
        2. Project schedule
        3. Human resource plan
        4. Risk register
        5. Enterprise environmental factors
        6. Organizational process assets

         

        1. Activity cost estimates
        2. Basis of estimates
        3. Project document updates

         

        Determine Budget

        1. Activity cost estimates
        2. Basis of estimates
        3. Scope baseline
        4. Project schedule
        5. Resource calendars
        6. Contracts
        7. Organizational process assets

         

        1. Cost performance baseline
        2. Project funding requirements
        3. Project document updates

         

        Plan Quality

        1. Scope baseline
        2. Stakeholder register
        3. Cost performance baseline
        4. Schedule baseline
        5. Risk register
        6. Enterprise environmental factors
        7. Organizational process assets
        1. Quality management plan
        2. Quality metrics
        3. Quality checklists
        4. Process improvement plan
        5. Project document updates

         

        Develop Human Resource Plan

        1. Activity resource requirements
        2. Enterprise environmental factors
        3. Organizational process assets

         

        1.  Human resource plan

         

        Plan Communications

        1. Steakeholder register
        2. Steakeholder management strategy
        3. Enterprise environmental factors
        4. Organizational process assets

         

        1. Communications management plan
        2. Project document updates

         

        Plan Risk Management

        1. Project scope statement
        2. Cost management plan
        3. Schedule management plan
        4. Communications management plan
        5. Enterprise environmental factors
        6. Organizational process assets

         

        1. Risk management plan

        Identify Risks

        1. Risk management plan
        2. Activity cost estimates
        3. Activity duration estimates
        4. Scope baseline
        5. Stakholder register
        6. Cost management plan
        7. Schedule management plan
        8. Quality management plan
        9. Project documents
        10. Enterprise environmental factors
        11. Organizational process assets

         

        1. Risk register

        Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis

        1. Risk register
        2. Risk management plan
        3. Project scope statement
        4. Organizational process assets

         

        1. Risk register updates

        Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis

        1. Risk register
        2. Project management plan
        3. Cost management plan
        4. Schedule management plan
        5. Organizational process assets

         

        1. Risk register updates

        Plan Risk Responses

        1. Risk register
        2. Risk management plan

         

        1. Risk register updates
        2. Risk-related contract decisions
        3. Project management plan updates
        4. Project document updates

         

        Plan Procurements

        1. Scope baseline
        2. Requiremets documentation
        3. Teaming agreements
        4. Risk register
        1. Risk-related contract decisions
        2. Activity resource requirements
        3. Project schedule
        4. Activity cost estimates
        5. Cost performance baseline
        6. Enterprise environmental factors
        7. Organizational process assets

         

        1. Procurement management plan
        2. Procurement statements of work
        3. Make-or-buy decisions
        4. Procurement documents
        5. Source selection criteria
        6. Change requests

        Executing Process Group 

        Direct & Manage Project Execution

        1. Project management plan
        2. Approved change requests
        3. Enterprise environmental factors
        4. Organizational process assets
        1. Deliverables
        2. Work performance information
        3. Change requests
        4. Project management plan updates
        5. Project document updates

         

        Perform Quality Assurance

        1. Project management plan
        2. Quality metrics
        3. Work performance information
        4. Quality control measurements
        1. Organizational process assets updates
        2. Change requests
        3. Project management plan updates
        4. Project document updates

        Acquire Project Team

         

        1. Project management plan
        2. Enterprise environmental factors
        3. Organizational process assets
        1. Project staff assignments
        2. Resource calendars
        3. Project management plan updates

         

        Develop Project Team

        1. Project staff assignments
        2. Project management plan
        3. Resource calendars
        1. Team performance assessments
        2. Enterprise environmental factors updates

         

        Manage Project Team

        1. Project staff assignments
        2. Project management plan
        1. Team performance assessments
        2. Performance reports
        3. Organizational process assets
        1. Enterprise environmental factors updates
        2. Organizational process assets updates
        3. Change requests
        4. Project management plan updates

         

        Distribute Information

         

         

        1. Project management plan
        2. Performance reports
        3. Organizational process assets

         

        1. Organizational process assets updates

         

        Manage Stakeholder Expectations

        1. Stakeholder register
        2. Stakeholder management strategy
        3. Project management plan
        4. Issue log
        5. Change log
        6. Organizational process assets
        1. Organizational process assets updates
        2. Change requests
        3. Project management plan updates
        4. Project document updates

         

        Conduct Procurements

        1. Project management plan
        2. Procurement documents
        3. Source selection criteria
        4. Qualified seller list
        5. Seller proposals
        6. Project documents
        7. Make-or-buy decisions
        8. Teaming agreements
        9. Organizational process assets
        1. Selected sellers
        2. Procurement contract award
        3. Resource calendars
        4. Change requests
        5. Project management plan updates
        6. Project document updates

         

        Monitoring & Controlling Process Group 

        Monitor & Control Project Work

        1. Project management plan
        2. Performance reports
        3. Enterprise environmental factors
        4. Organizational process assets
        1. Change requests
        2. Project management plan updates
        3. Project document updates

         

        Perform Integrated Change Control

        1. Project management plan
        2. Work performance information
        3. Change requests
        4. Enterprise environmental factors
        5. Organizational process assets
        1. Change requests status updates
        2. Project management plan updates
        3. Project document updates

         

        Verify Scope

        1. Project management plan
        2. Requirements documentation
        3. Requirements traceability matrix
        4. Validated deliverasbles
        1. Accepted deliverables
        2. Change requests
        3. Project document updates

         

        Control Scope

        1. Project management plan
        2. Work performance information
        3. Requirements documentation
        4. Requirements traceability matrix
        5. Organizational process assets
        1. Work performance measurements
        1. Organizational process assets updates
        2. Change requests
        3. Project management plan updates
        4. Project document updates

         

        Control Schedule

        1. Project management plan
        2. Project schedule
        3. Work performance information
        4. Organizational process assets

         

        1. Work performance measurements
        2. Organizational process assets updates
        3. Change requests
        4. Project management plan updates
        5. Project document updates

         

        Control Costs

        1. Project management plan
        2. Project funding requirements
        3. Work performance information
        4. Organizational process assets
        1. Work performance measurements
        2. Budget forecasts
        3. Organizational process assets updates
        4. Change requests
        5. Project management plan updates
        6. Project document updates

         

        Perform Quality Control

        1. Project management plan
        2. Quality metrics
        3. Quality checklists
        4. Work performance measurements
        5. Approved change requests
        6. Deliverables
        7. Organizational process assets
        1. Quality control mesurements
        2. Validated changes
        3. Validated deliverables
        4. Organizational process assets updates
        5. Change requests
        6. Project management plan updates
        7. Project document updates

         

        Report Performance

        1. Project management plan
        2. Work performance information
        3. Work performance measurements
        4. Budget forecasts
        5. Organizational process assets
        1. Performance reports
        2. Organizational process assets updates
        3. Change requests

         

         

        Monitor and  Control Risks

        1. Risk register
        2. Risk management plan
        3. Work performance information
        4. Performance reports
        1. Risk register updates
        2. Organizational process assets updates
        3. Change requests
        4. Project management plan updates
        5. Project document updates

         

        Administer Procurements

        1. Procurement documents
        2. Project management plan
        3. Contract
        4. Performance reports
        5. Approved change requests
        6. Work performance information
        1. Procurement documentation
        2. Organizational process assets updates
        3. Change requests
        4. Project management plan updates

         

        Closing Process Group 

        Close Project or Phase

        1. Project management plan
        2. Accepted deliverables
        3. Organizational process assets
        1. Final product, service, or result transition
        2. Organizational process assets updates

        Close Procurements

        1. Procurement management plan
        2. Procurement  documentation
        1. Closed procurements
        2. Organizational process assets updates

         




         
         
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